Anno [fourth, Anno] Dom. R52 This book contains the history and genealogy of the Richardson and Ellsworth families of Massacusetts.
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Bibliographic Information: Richardson, Ruth Ellsworth. Samuel Richardson and Josiah Ellsworth. Privately Published. Thomas Rogers above II. Thomas Roger's true English origins were discovered in by Clifford Stott and published with supporting documentation in The Genealogist Thomas' marriage to Alice Cosford and his children's baptisms are all found in the parish registers of Watford, Northampton, England. And just two years later, on 1 April , he sold his house in Leyden before coming to America on the Mayflower.
Thomas Rogers brought his son Joseph on the Mayflower. He died the first winter, but his son Joseph survived. William Bradford in his Of Plymouth Plantation writes of Thomas Rogers: "the rest of Thomas Rogers' [children] came over and are married and have many children.
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John Rogers is known to have come to America and married, but unfortunately the whereabouts of Elizabeth and Margaret remain unknown, though Bradford seems to suggest they came to America and married. Robert S. Of the achievements of her people in the making of a commonwealth and the founding of a nation.
By Ezra S. New York, His wife did not come to America. Bradford says, "The rest of Thomas rogers family came over and are married with many children. In he sued a baker and a miller of Leiden to free a lien on his house and perhaps in preparation of his journey, won the suit and was awarded court costs. Records in Leiden of the poll tax show his family living there in back part of a house owned by Anthly Clements and including John son of Thomas; Elizabeth Rogers, widow of Thomas and Elizabeth and Margaret, her children.
Upon Thomas' death, Joseph may have lived with Gov. Joseph came in Many have claimed for Thomas other male descendants, none of which had been proved by the publication date of the Mayflower Family Vol. Two, Thomas Rogers and it is there noted one has been disproved, i.
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For other Mayflower references, see the index. Boston and New York: Houghton, Mifflin, , pp.
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Major children and living persons must directly contact the owner of this family tree. The allotments to the respective ships made at Southampton, the designation of quarters in the ships themselves, and the final readjustments upon the MAY-FLOWER at Plymouth England , when the remaining passengers of both ships had been united, were all necessarily determined chiefly with regard to the needs of the women, girls, and babes.
Careful analysis of the list shows that there were, requiring this especial consideration, nineteen women, ten young girls, and one infant. Of the other children, none were so young that they might not readily bunk with or near their fathers in any part of the ship in which the latter might be located.
We know enough of the absolute unselfishness and devotion of all the Leyden leaders, whatever their birth or station,--so grandly proven in those terrible days of general sickness and death at New Plymouth,--to be certain that with them, under all circumstances, it was noblesse oblige, and that no self-seeking would actuate them here. It should be remembered that the MAY-FLOWER was primarily a passenger transport, her passengers being her principal freight and occupying the most of the ship, the heavier cargo being chiefly confined to the "hold.
The testimony of Captain John Smith, "the navigator," as to the passengers of the MAY-FLOWER "lying wet in their cabins," and that of Bradford as to Billington's "cabin between decks," already quoted, is conclusive as to the fact that she had small cabins the "staterooms" of to-day , intended chiefly, no doubt, for women and children.
It also suggests that the chartering-party was expected in those days to control, if not to do, the "fitting up" of the ship for her voyage. In view of the usual "breadth of beam" of ships of her class and tonnage, aft, and the fore and aft length of the poop, it is not unreasonable to suppose that there were not less than four small cabins on either side of the common open cabin or saloon often depicted as the signing-place of the Compact , under the high poop deck.
Constructed on the general plan of such rooms or cabins to-day with four single berths, in tiers of two on either hand , there would be--if the women and girls were conveniently distributed among them--space for all except the Billingtons, who we know had a cabin as had also doubtless several of the principal men built between decks.
This would also leave an after cabin for the Master, who not infrequently made his quarters, and those of his chief officer, in the "round house," when one existed, especially in a crowded ship. Cabins and bunks "between decks" would provide for all of the males of the company, while the seamen, both of the crew and some of those in the employ of the Pilgrims--like Trevore and Ely--were no doubt housed in the fore castle. Alderton and English seem to have been counted "of the company. The last-named duty must have been a most difficult and wearisome one.
From what has been shown of the poverty of the ship's cooking facilities especially for so large a company , one must infer that it would be hopeless to expect to cook food in any quantity, except when all conditions favored, and then but slowly and with much difficulty. From the fact that so many would require food at practically the same hours of the day, it is clear that there must have been distribution of food principally uncooked to groups or families, who, with the aid of servants when available , must each have prepared their own meals, cooking as occasion and opportu nity indicated; much after the manner of the steerage passengers in later days, but before those of the great ocean liners.
There appears to have been but one cook for the officers and crew of the ship, and his hands were doubtless full with their demands. It is certain that his service to the passengers must have been very slight. That "the cook" is named as one of the ship's crew who died in Plymouth harbor New England is all the knowledge we have concerning him.
The use of and dependence upon tea and coffee, now so universal, and at sea so seemingly indispensable, was then unknown, beer supplying their places, and this happily did not have to be prepared with fire. Our Pilgrim Fathers were by no means "total abstainers," and sadly bewailed being deprived of their beer when the supply failed. They also made general and habitual moderate use of wine and spirits, though they sharply interdicted and promptly punished their abuse. In the absence of cooking facilities, it became necessary in that day to rely chiefly upon such articles of food as did not require to be prepared by heat, such as biscuit hard bread , butter, cheese "Holland cheese" was a chief staple with the Pilgrims , "haberdyne" or dried salt codfish , smoked herring, smoked "cured " ham and bacon, "dried neat's tongues," preserved and "potted" meats a very limited list in that day , fruits, etc.
Mush, oatmeal, pease-puddings, pickled eggs, sausage meats, salt beef and pork, bacon, "spiced beef," such few vegetables as they had chiefly cabbages, turnips, and onions,--there were no potatoes in that day , etc. Except as dried or preserved fruits, vegetables notably onions , limes, lemon juice, and the free use of vinegar feebly counteracted, their food was distinctively stimulant of scorbutic and tuberculosis disease, which constant exposure to cold and wet and the overcrowded state of the ship could but increase and aggravate.
Bradford narrates of one of the crew of the MAY-FLOWER when in Plymouth harbor, as suggestive of the wretched conditions prevalent in the ship, that one of his shipmates, under an agreement to care for him, "got him a little spice and made him a mess of beef, once or twice," and then deserted him. Josselyn, in his "Two Voyages to New England," gives as the result of the experience and observations had in his voyages, but a few years later, much that is interesting and of exceptional value as to the food and equipment of passengers to, and colonists in, this part of America.
It has especial interest, perhaps, for the author and his readers, in the fact that Josselyn's statements were not known until after the data given in these pages had been independently worked out from various sources, and came therefore as a gratifying confirmation of the conclusions already reached. Josselyn says as to food, as follows"The common proportion of victuals for the sea to a mess being 4 men is as followeth "2 pieces of Beef of 3 lb.
Pork seems to have been inadvertently omitted. It is of good use. It certainly cannot be accounted strange that infectious diseases, once started among them, should have run through their ranks like fire, taking both old and young. Nor is it strange that--though more inured to hardship and the conditions of sea life--with the extreme and unusual exposure of boat service on the New England coast in mid winter, often wading in the icy water and living aboard ship in a highly infected atmosphere, the seamen should have succumbed to disease in almost equal ratio with the colonists.
The author is prepared, after careful consideration, to accept and professionally indorse, with few exceptions, the conclusions as to the probable character of the decimating diseases of the passengers and crew of the MAY-FLOWER, so ably and interestingly presented by Dr. Edward E.
It would, in view of the hardship of the voyage, have been very remarkable if this had not been the case. It would have been still more remarkable if the ill-conditioned, thin- blooded, town-bred "servants" and apprentices had not suffered first and most. It is significant that eight out of nine of the male "servants" should have died in the first four months. It was impossible that scurvy should not have been prevalent with both passengers and crew. If clearing at a custom-house of to-day her manifest would excite no little interest and surprise.
Taking no account of the ship's stores and supplies necessarily large, like her crew, when bound upon such a voyage, when every possible need till her return to her home port must be provided for before sailing , the colonists' goods and chattels were many, their provisions bulky, their ordnance, arms, and stores in the hold heavy, and their trading-stock fairly ample. It is altogether probable that the crowded condition of her spar and main decks caused the supply of live-stock taken--whether for consumption upon the voyage or for the planters' needs on shore--to be very limited as to both number and variety.
It has been matter of surprise to many that no cattle not even milch-cows were taken, but if--as is not unlikely--it was at first proposed to take a cow or two when both ships were to go and larger space was available , this intent was undoubtedly abandoned at Plymouth, England, when it became evident that there would be dearth of room even for passengers, none whatever for cattle or their fodder a large and prohibitive quantity of the latter being required for so long a voyage , and that the lateness of the season and its probable hardships would endanger the lives of the animals if taken.
It is quite possible that some few sheep, rabbits, and poultry for immediate consumption these requiring but little forage may have been shipped, this being customary then as now. It is also probable that some household pets--cats and caged singing-birds, the latter always numerous in both England and Holland--were carried on board by their owners, though no direct evidence of the fact is found. There is ample proof that goats, swine, poultry, and dogs were landed with the colonists at New Plymouth, and it is equally certain that they had at first neither cattle, horses, nor sheep.
Of course the she-goats were their sole reliance for milk for some time, whether afloat or ashore, and goat's flesh and pork their only possibilities in the way of fresh meat for many months, save poultry and game after landing , though we may be sure, in view of the breeding value of their goats, poultry, and swine, few were consumed for food.
The "fresh meat" mentioned as placed before Massasoit' on his first visit was probably venison, though possibly kid's meat, pork, or poultry. Of swine and poultry they must have had a pretty fair supply, judging from their rapid increase, though their goats must have been few. They were wholly without beasts of draft or burden though it seems strange that a few Spanish donkeys or English "jacks" had not been taken along, as being easily kept, hardy, and strong, and quite equal to light ploughing, hauling, carrying, etc.
The space they and their forage demanded it was doubtless considered impracticable to spare. The only dogs that appear in evidence are a large mastiff bitch the only dog of that breed probably seen on these shores since Pring's "bigge dogges" so frightened the Indians' in this region seventeen years before [Captain Martin Pring had at Plymouth, in , two great "mastive dogges" named "Fool" and "Gallant," the former being trained to carry a half-pike in his mouth.
Speaking of the venison found in a tree by one of the exploring parties, Winslow says: "We thought it fitter for the dogs than for us," perhaps suggesting by his word "the" their own dogs aboard ship and provision for them. There is an intimation as to the ownership of these two dogs in the facts that on certainly two occasions John Goodman was accompanied by the little spaniel once when alone , from which it may perhaps be inferred that he was the dog's master; while the big mastiffs presence when only Peter Browne and Goodman were together suggests that Browne was her owner.
The goats, swine, rabbits, and poultry were doubtless penned on the spar-deck forward, while possibly some poultry, and any sheep brought for food, may have been temporarily housed--as was a practice with early voyagers--in the unused ship's boats, though these appear to have been so few in number and so much in demand that it is doubtful if they were here available as pens.
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The heavy cargo and most of the lighter was of course stowed in the hold, as the main deck or "'tween decks" was mostly occupied as quarters for the male passengers, old and young, though the colonists' shallop, a sloop-rigged boat some thirty feet in length, had been "cut down" and stowed "between the decks" for the voyage. A glimpse of the weary life at sea on that long and dreary passage is given in Bradford's remark that "she was much opened with the people's lying in her during the voyage:' This shallop with her equipment, a possible spare skiff or two, the chests, "boxes," and other personal belongings of the passengers, some few cases of goods, some furniture, etc.
The provisions in use, both by passengers and crew, were probably kept in the lazarette or "runs," in the stern of the ship, which would be unusually capacious in vessels of this model; some--the bulkiest--in the hold under the forward hatch, as the custom was, and to some extent still is.
Oatmeal in barrels or hogsheads. Rye meal in hogsheads.